On Women In Math

Data Sources

  • The US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission published its Annual Report: Women in STEM (FY2019) which states “Overall, women accounted for 29.3 percent of STEM federal workers. Science occupations had the most (49,546), while math occupations in the federal sector had the fewest number of women (6,469). There were significantly fewer women in Technology and Engineering than expected.”
  • Changing the Curve: Women in Computing provides a timeline of women’s achievements in computing and computer science, addresses the gender gaps in education and the workforce, and includes additional resources for women and specifically for women of color. Berkeley School of Information.
  • National Center for Women in Technology “brings the proven tools, evidence-based methodologies, and collaborative peer communities that help build possibility, develop potential, and create lasting change.”
  • Catalyst.org’s Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics has international data.
  • The Committee on Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicinecollects and disseminates data and information on the education and employment of women scientists, engineers, and health care professionals, and ways to increase the participation and advancement of women in all fields of science, engineering, and medicine.”
  • National Science Foundation’s statistics website offers data including how many women earn baccalaureates in mathematics each year. These and other information are published biennially in two reports: Science and Engineering Indicators and Women, Minorities and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering.
  • The Status of Women in the States, provides data on women’s progress in 50 states, DC and the US overall.  Published by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research.
  • Stanford’s Clayman Instutite for Gender Research Research Publications includes reports on gender bias, dual-career couples, and women in technology.

Technical Reports

  • 2020 International Science Council Report: A Global Approach to the Gender Gap in Mathematical, Computing, and Natural Sciences: How to Measure It, How to Reduce It? We present methodologies, insights, and tools that have been developed throughout the project, as well as a set of recommendations for different audiences: instructors and parents; educational institutions; scientific unions and other organizations responsible for science policy.
  • The Situation of Gender Equality in Mathematics in Japan by Makiko Sasada(U. Tokyo)Kenichi Bannai(Keio U.), 2020. “As shown in this current report, the percentage of women in mathematics in Japan is low compared both with other countries in the world and with other research areas in Japan. In particular, unlike other fields in Japan, gender equality appears to be receding. The decline in the percentage of female students in graduate school is particularly alarming, especially for the long-term prospect for the field of mathematics.”
  • Gender Differences in First Jobs for New US PhDs in the Mathematical Sciences by Marie A. Vitulli 2017. “In this study we investigate employment patterns for new PhDs in mathematics between 1991 and 2015 with an eye toward gender, citizenship and gender × citizenship differences in unemployment rates, patterns of job types, and comparable employment rates”
  • Gender Representation on Journal Editorial Boards in the Mathematical Sciences by Chad Topaz, Shilad Sen 2016. “Our findings provide the first measure of gender distribution on editorial boards in the mathematical sciences, offer insights that suggest future studies in the mathematical sciences, and introduce new methods that enable large-scale studies of gender distribution in other fields.”

Jacqueline Dewar, Loyola Marymount University

  •   Women and Mathematics, fall 2004
  • Resources and materials for teaching an interdisciplinary course on women and mathematics developed with support from an MAA-Tensor Women and Mathematics grant to co-teach Women and Mathematics with Lily Khadjavi (spring 2008), Alissa Crans (fall 2010) and Anna Bargagliotti (fall 2012).

Sarah Greenwald, Appalachian State University

Emek Kose, St. Mary’s College of Maryland

  • Women’s Representation in Mathematics Subfields: Evidence from the arXiv (Abra Brisbin, Ursula Whitcher 2015):  We use data from papers posted to the Mathematics section of the arXiv to explore the representation of women in mathematics research. We show that women are under-represented as authors of mathematics papers on the arXiv, even in comparison to the proportion of women who hold full-time positions in mathematics departments. However, some subfields have much greater participation than others.
  • Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Mathematics Conferences (George Martin 2015)
  • Advancing Diversity in the US Industrial Science and Engineering Workforce: Summary of a Workshop (2014), a report from the National Academy of Engineering.Thousands of gifted individuals, including women and underrepresented minorities, remain a disproportionally small fraction of those in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) careers. Industry, as the largest employer category of those with STEM backgrounds, stands to benefit considerably from greater inclusion of women and underrepresented minorities in the workforce. However, nothing short of a game-changing environment must be created to harness the talent of those not fully represented in the STEM workforce.
  • Accelerating Change for Women Faculty of Color in STEM: Policy, Action, and Collaboration (2013) is part of a project to address the underrepresentation of women faculty of color in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) led by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR). It summarizes highlights from a convening held in May 2013 that brought together nearly 50 experts, including professors, academic administrators, and representatives of government, professional societies, the corporate sector, and women’s organizations.
  • Seeking Solutions: Maximizing American Talent by Advancing Women of Color in Academia: Summary of a Conference (2013), a report from the National Research Council. the summary of a conference convened by the Committee on Women in Science, Engineering and Medicine of the National Research Council to discuss the current status of women of color in academia and explore the challenges and successful initiatives for creating the institutional changes required to increase representation of women of color at all levels of the academic workforce.
  • A Forgotten Class of Scientists:  Examining the Parental and Family Benefits Available to Research Trainees (2012) by The National Academy of Sciences examined the status of federal and university policies related to parental and family leave for predoctoral and postdoctoral research trainees.
  • Promoting Diversity at the Graduate Level is a report from a 2008 workshop at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute to increase the recruitment, retention, and graduation rates of women and other historically underrepresented groups in graduate programs in the mathematical sciences.
  • Why So Slow?: The Advancement of Women (1997): Virginia Valian uses concepts and data from psychology, sociology, economics, and biology to explain the disparity in the professional advancement of men and women.